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工業的能源效率Energy Efficiency for Industry [David Malka大衛·馬爾卡]
發布者:管理員


Abstract: Given the fact that most of plants in various industries currently do not manage their energy poorly, and the fact that in the 13th Five-Year Plan, Chinese government stressed on energy structure optimization, this paper introduces a comprehensive solution to industrial plants that is aimed to improve the energy efficiency in the plants, and create savings in terms of energy for the plants.

摘要:基于現階段大部分工廠對于能源的管理較為粗放,并且中國政府在“十三五”計劃中強調優化能源結構,本文介紹了一套針對工業工廠制定的解決方案,該方案旨在提升工廠的能源效率,為工廠創造能源收益。

Key words: Energy; efficiency; management; solution

關鍵詞:能源;效率;管理;解決方案


1. Current Status of Energy Management for Industry

1. 工業能源效率的現狀

1.1 Problems

1.1 問題

Currently, most industrial plants manage their energy incorrectly. Plant owners are focusing on production, product quality, safety and environment. I definitely agree that these fields are very important, but that is not enough. In mid-sized plants, annual energy consumption may total $30-50 million and even more, which is a great deal of money. Therefore, it would be appropriate to emphasize the energy issue accordingly. Moreover, energy efficiency may improve production output, environment, product quality and safety.

目前,大多數工廠的能源管理方式都不完善。工廠所有者著重關注生產、產品質量、安全和環保。我非常同意上述方面是重中之重,但這是不夠的。一些中型工廠的年度能耗可以到達3000到5000萬美元,甚至更多。這是一個非常大的數字。因此,能耗也應該獲得相應的關注。再者,能源效率的改善甚至有可能帶來產量、環境、產品質量以及安全方面的改善。

To verify the fact that the attention put to energy is currently inadequate is most plants, I would like to suggest an experiment. Ask the plant manager whether he knows or has a summarizing document indicating the amount of money paid for energy consumption in the past year and what was the consumption of all types of energy used in the past year. I can assure you that 90% of the respondents will not be able to provide such a document, which shows that energy management at the plant is deficient and requires immediate improvement. On the opposite, if you ask about the amount of production last year, you will get a quick and precise answer with all the relevant details.

為了驗證目前大部分工廠對于能源關注不足這一事實,我有一個提議:向工廠經理提問:他是否知道去年一年他的工廠在能耗方面花了多少錢?各項能源的消耗量是多少?他是否在整理過相關的文件來總結上述能耗情況?我認為90%的經理沒有辦法拿出一份這樣的文件來,那么這就說明他們工廠的能耗管理是不足的,需要即刻整改。反之,如果你問他們去年的產量是多少, 你會得到一個快速且精確的回答,涵蓋所有相關的細節。


1.2 Suggested Solution

1.2 建議的解決方案

We are aiming to improve the energy management on the site. How can we achieve this goal? To manage the energy on the site properly, we have to understand the energy consumption and how much we pay. To do this, we need a quality system to measure the total consumption or supply of energy, in order to understand the overall situation on the site. Afterwards, we would be able to examine every detail and choose the area we need to focus on.  First, we should focus on the main consumers with high energy cost and then the process begins.

我們的目標是改善工廠的能源管理。如何來實現這個目標呢?要想合理地管理工廠的能源,我們必須理解能耗及其成本,其前提就是有一個高質量的系統來計量能源的供銷,進而摸清工廠的總體能耗現狀。只有這樣,我們才能核查每一個細節,才能選擇我們需要專注的區域。我們應該首先關注那些成本高的主要能源消耗裝置,然后開始優化流程。


We need to examine the efficiency of large consumers by using smart tools that can help us see an even bigger picture and derive smart ideas to increase efficiency and save energy. It should be noted that the senior management must believe in the process and be committed to it, and lead it while allocating resources and evaluating performance throughout the process.

我們需要通過使用一些先進的,可以幫助我們進行更深入了解的工具來檢驗工廠中大型耗能裝置的能源效率,并且想出一些明智的想法來增效節能。需要提出的是,工廠的高管需要對這個優化的過程有信心,有決心,在領導這個能源效率優化的整個過程中,分配資源,評估績效。


One of our main problems is awareness to efficient work. There are many ways to raise awareness among employees, such as energy training, establishment of a performance evaluation system, which can be a software continuously displayed in the control rooms, establishment of incentives for success, as well as addition of an energy supervisor for the entire site.

效率提升工作將會遇到很多的難題,強化效率意識就是其中之一。提升員工能源意識的方法有很多種,例如,進行能源培訓,建立績效考核系統(可以以軟件的形式長期顯示在控制室屏幕上),建立激勵機制,在全廠設立能耗監督崗位等。


In addition, it is possible and even recommended to involve the employees in the process of evaluating performance on the site in terms of energy and efficiency, while using sophisticated tools, thus achieving the involvement and curiosity of the staff on the front line, who are also the majority – do not forget this.

此外,在評估工廠的能耗狀況,使用先進工具的這一過程中,如有可能,我推薦把工廠內部的員工也納入這個團隊中,這樣的話,可以增強一線員工的參與性和好奇心。這些一線員工可是工廠的主要群體——不要忘了這一點。


2. Technology Application in the Solution

2. 解決方案中技術的運用

The energy efficiency technology that we bring is based on an organized methodology, which includes the use of smart tools and involves the managers and employees of the plant, meaning that it is based on joint work.

我們所帶來的能源效率提升技術基于一套條理清晰的方法論,其中包含了先進工具的使用,也會吸納工廠內的經理和員工參與進來,也就是說,這種能源效率的提升需要大家的通力合作。


At first, a general data collection is needed, which means the amounts of various categories of energy that the plant purchase, such as coal, electricity, steam, water, fuels, etc. need to be metered and collected. Based on that, we then need to build a list that include how much of which kind of energy had been distributed to which consumer. After that, additional tools will be adopted to measure the energy efficiency. Next, analyses will be conducted based on the results from the tools and ideas will be generated according to the analyses. After that, we need to filter all of the ideas and finally stay with a limited number of ideas. A idea ticket will be created for each idea that passed the filtration, including information such as saving calculation, investment required, payback period, etc. Afterwards, we decide together with the plant management on when and how to implement each idea. Finally, we can build a savings plan and streamline energy efficiency for over five years. In the course of the project, we are required to build performance tests for each process, while others are built on software, while others are on control room boards, allowing all employees to be exposed to performance and even take part in their examination.

首先,需要進行廣泛的數據收集。也就是說,需要對工廠所消耗的各類能源,諸如煤,電,蒸汽,水,燃料等,進行計量和數據采集。接下來,在數據的基礎上,我們就可以開始使用工具來衡量工廠的能源效率了。之后,基于工具的使用結果,我們需要進行分析,并且生成許多改進想法。進行想法篩選之后,我們需要定出一些最后的想法。此后,我們就需要為每個通過篩選的想法做一張表格,這張表格包含了諸如該想法的收益計算,投資需求,投資回報周期等信息。最后,我們會制定出一份收益計劃,并且在未來五年內根據計劃,實施相應的想法,從而精簡工廠的能源效率。在該項目的整個過程中,我們需要為每一個流程建立績效考核機制,一些可以通過軟件來編寫,一些也可以在控制室的展示板上體現出來,這樣一來,工廠員工就可以親身接觸能源績效,甚至參與到能源績效考核之中。


This program is suitable for any industrial plant needing energy efficiency improvement. The benefits of the program are: raising awareness and changing energy behavior both among employees and managers. In addition, the energy status of the plant can be organized, and all the issues with energy will be also discussed. There will be a lot of ideas of improvement, some of which even without any investment. From this point on, the plant does not return to its previous state, but progresses and becomes more efficient both in awareness and behavior and in their processes.

這個項目適合任何一個需要在能源效率方面做出改進的工廠。具體的裨益之處有:在經理和員工范圍內提升能源意識,改變能源行為;工廠內的能耗狀況也會得到充分的梳理,所有跟能源相關的事項都會被拿出來討論;生成許多改進的想法,有些想法甚至不需要投資。從此,工廠不會在返回到之前的能源狀況,只會進一步提升能源效率,而在意識行為,在各項流程上都會變得更有效率。


Furthermore, we recommend to establishment of an energy department that could initially include just one person who is solely responsible for collecting all the information. In addition, he constantly conducts performance tests according to the goals set by the plant and always thinks ahead and examines improvements and introduction of new technologies.

此外,我們還推薦建立一個能源部門,這個部門在初期甚至可以只有一個人,它需要負責能源信息的采集,需要根據工廠所設立的目標持續進行能源績效考核,還需要持續地長遠考慮,檢驗之前的改進措施是否有效,并且引入新的技術。


3. Examples and Analysis

3. 例子和分析

3.1 Cost and Load Analysis

3.1 成本與負荷分析

As an example, we shall use an application tool called Cost and Load Analysis to examine the compressed air system at the plant.

舉個例子,我們可以通過運用一個叫做“成本與負荷分析”的工具來檢測壓縮空氣系統的能耗狀況。





Prepare a table of compressors at the plant. The table should include the amount of compressors, name of each compressor, flow rate of each compressor and possible pressure of each compressor, and after measurements – the cost per compressed air unit of each compressor. In addition, prepare a list of consumers and build a long-term consumption distribution. A simple analysis will allow us to see that some compressors should be activated before the others, and we will probably find that we do not need to activate all the compressors, which will enable saving energy. This is one of many examples of using the tools.

準備一份工廠中空壓機的列表,包含空壓機的數量,每臺空壓機的名字、流量、壓力范圍,以及通過計量和計算所得出的——每臺空壓機的單位成本。此外,再準備一份壓縮空氣用戶的列表,建立一個長期的消耗分配機制。通過簡單的分析,我們可以發現對于一些空壓機的使用我們是需要分先后順序的,我們還可能發現我們不一定需要啟動所有的空壓機,這樣的話,我們就有可能節省能耗。這就是眾多工具中的一個例子。


3.2 Losses Reflected by Unit Consumption

3.2 單位能耗所反映出來的損失

Another example of examining the process energy efficiency by looking into unit consumption:

再舉一個例子。這個例子可以通過對單位能耗的深入研究來檢驗能源效率:


Take the most energy-intensive equipment and start to examine the energy consumption according to the manufacturer per ton of product, i.e. the technology we chose. What is the actual energy consumption per ton of product? In most cases, the actual consumption will be higher that the consumption provided by the manufacturer, and this is where the engineering work begins by examining the source of gaps, and for each gap, we should find a solution, thereby contributing to increased efficiency and energy savings.

找到能源消耗最密集的設備,并開始基于制造商所提供的單位能耗,也就是這個技術的單位能耗來檢驗該設備的能耗情況。那么該設備的實際單位能耗又是多少呢?在大部分情況下,實際單位能耗都會比制造商所提供的單位能耗要高。那么我們的工程師就需要著手來檢驗造成差距的原因,針對每個原因提出解決方案,從而達到提升能源效率,節省能源的目的。



Many other important tools can be used to achieve maximum efficiency.

在其他方面還有很多重要的工具可以用來爭取最佳效率。


4. Summary and Future Enlightenment

4. 總結與未來啟示

4.1 Summary

4.1 總結

The government provides grants and launches information projects aimed to present the Chinese industry with the possible value of streamlining industrial energy processes. The main reason the government focuses on energy efficiency in Chinese industry is that most of the energy is wasted due to poor management of energy and electricity consumption at plants and industrial workplaces.

中國政府正在通過提供撥款,開展各種項目等方法來改善工業能源現狀。政府之所以這么做,是因為大部分能源都正在因為粗放的管理而在工廠和其他工業場所流失浪費。

The program, which aims to streamline and economize energy cost on industrial plants in an intensive manner, is a system-wide program that lists a long list of steps arranged within a methodology that touches the entire energy chain on the site. The plan defines expected savings, expected investments and priorities. In addition, the plan presents the things that must be done and the means of implementation, while defining milestones until completion, and even performs performance tests according to the defined goals.

該項目旨在以密集的方式精簡和節省工廠的能源成本,是一個系統性的項目,在一套方法論的指導下安排一系列步驟,這些步驟涉及到工廠的整個能源鏈。該計劃確定了預期的收益,預期投資和其他優先事項。 此外,該計劃還會提出必須做的事情和實施手段,同時還會確定整個過程的每一個里程碑直到項目完成,甚至還能根據既定目標執行能源績效考核。

Energy efficiency saves money - it's a fact. Most of the businesses that have already entered the process did not necessarily have to do so for reasons of environmental thinking, but out of recognition of the return that investment generates in streamlining. And if it is out of the environmental reasons and can make profits, it will be an even better thing to do, too. According to previous experience, a program as such can reduce around 10% of the annual energy cost for a plant.

能源效率提升可以省錢——這是一個事實。已經實施這個項目的大多數企業并不一定是出于環境因素的考慮,而是出于對投資回報的認可。而如果是出于環境因素的考慮,也可以賺取利潤,那么這更是錦上添花了。基于過往經驗,這樣的一個項目可以為一個工廠降低其年度能耗的10%。


4.2 Future Enlightenment

4.2 未來啟示

For proper energy management, the following are required:

要做到合理地管理能源,需要做到下列事項:


Commitment of the management, defining the energy policy, setting goals and objectives, conducting work procedures, reporting and training employees, testing energy efficiency of various processes and taking corrective actions, constantly updating and improving, defining the required energy indicators.

管理層擔起責任,對于能源政策的解讀,目標和任務的設定,工作流程的推進,員工的報告和培訓,各項工藝的能源效率測試,矯正措施的采用,持續的更新和改進,明確能源指標等等。


Defining the energy indicators required at the plant, while taking into consideration the following aspects:

而所謂明確能源指標,則需要考慮以下幾個方面的問題:


·       Reduction of environmental impacts.

·       減小對環境的影響。

·       Identification and detection of energy efficiency potential.

·       識別并找到能源效率提升的潛力。

·       Benchmarking – comparisons with similar enterprises vs. sector data.

·       設立標桿——和相似企業或者部門數據進行比較。

·       Establishment of indicators to examine energy efficiency.

·       建立指標來檢驗能源效率。


Energy Efficiency Design

能源效率設計

·       At the planning stage, prior to implementing any new project or installation, energy considerations should be taken into account.

·       在計劃設計階段,實施任何新的項目或者進行任何新的安裝之前,都需要考慮能源方面的因素。

·       Optimal efficiency of energy between various systems.

·       在各個系統之間達到能源效率最優。

Monitoring & Measurement

監控和計量

·       Implementation of monitoring and measurement systems in order to verify savings and find new sources for efficiency.

·       設立監控和計量系統,核實收益,尋找新的效率提升點。

·       Installation of technologies that will lead to energy efficiency.

·       采用新的技術,進一步提升能源效率。



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